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11/29/12

Vaccination Schedules for Dogs and Puppies

Vaccines are now being divided into two classes. 'Core' vaccines for dogs are those that should be given to every dog. 'Noncore' vaccines are recommended only for certain dogs. Whether to vaccinate with noncore vaccines depends upon a number of things including the age, breed, and health status of the dog, the potential exposure of the dog to an animal that has the disease, the type of vaccine and how common the disease is in the geographical area where the dog lives or may visit.

The AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents' Report on Cat and Dog Vaccines has recommended that the core vaccines for dogs include distemper, canine adenovirus-2 (hepatitis and respiratory disease), canine parvovirus-2and rabies.

Noncore vaccines include leptospirosis, coronavirus, canine parainfluenza and Bordetella bronchiseptica (both are causes of 'kennel cough'), and Borrelia burgdorferi (causes Lyme Disease). Consult with your veterinarian to select the proper vaccines for your dog or puppy.

AVMA Vaccination Recommendations for Dogs


Vaccination Recommendations for Dogs
Component
Class
Efficacy
Length of Immunity
Risk/Severity of Adverse Effects
Comments
Core
High
Low

Measles
Noncore
High in preventing disease, but not in preventing infection
Long
Infrequent
Use in high risk environments for canine distemper in puppies 4-10 weeks of age
Core
High
> 1 year
Low

Core
High
> 1 year
Low
Only use canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) vaccines
Core
High
Dependent upon type of vaccine
Low to moderate

Noncore
Not adequately studied
Short
Minimal
If vaccination warranted, boost annually or more frequently
Noncore
Intranasal MLV - Moderate Injectable MLV - Low
Moderate
Low
Only recommended for dogs in kennels, shelters, shows, or large colonies; If vaccination warranted, boost annually or more frequently
Noncore
Intranasal MLV - Moderate Injectable MLV - Low
Short
Low
For the most benefit, use intranasal vaccine 2 weeks prior to exposure
Noncore
Variable
Short
High
Up to 30% of dogs may not respond to vaccine
Noncore
Low
Short
Low
Risk of exposure high in kennels, shelters, shows, breeding facilities
Noncore
Appears to be limited to previously unexposed dogs; variable
Revaccinate annually
Moderate

A possible vaccination schedule for the 'average' dog is shown below.
Dog Vaccination Schedule
Age
Vaccination
5 weeks
Parvovirus: for puppies at high risk of exposure to parvo, some veterinarians recommend vaccinating at 5 weeks. Check with your veterinarian.
6 & 9 weeks
Combination vaccine* without leptospirosis. 
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
12 weeks or older
Rabies: Given by your local veterinarian (age at vaccination may vary according to local law).
12 & 15 weeks**
Combination vaccine 
Leptospirosis: include leptospirosis in the combination vaccine where leptospirosis is a concern, or if traveling to an area where it occurs. 
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern. 
Lyme: where Lyme disease is a concern or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Adult (boosters)§
Combination vaccine 
Leptospirosis: include leptospirosis in the combination vaccine where leptospirosis is a concern, or if traveling to an area where it occurs. 
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern. 
Lyme: where Lyme disease is a concern or if traveling to an area where it occurs. 
Rabies: Given by your local veterinarian (time interval between vaccinations may vary according to local law).
*A combination vaccine, often called a 5-way vaccine, usually includes adenovirus cough and hepatitis, distemper, parainfluenza, and parvovirus. Some combination vaccines may also include leptospirosis (7-way vaccines) and/or coronavirus. The inclusion of either canine adenovirus-1 or adenovirus-2 in a vaccine will protect against both adenovirus cough and hepatitis; adenovirus-2 is highly preferred.
**Some puppies may need additional vaccinations against parvovirus after 15 weeks of age. Consult with your local veterinarian.
§ According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, dogs at low risk of disease exposure may not need to be boostered yearly for most diseases. Consult with your local veterinarian to determine the appropriate vaccination schedule for your dog. Remember, recommendations vary depending on the age, breed, and health status of the dog, the potential of the dog to be exposed to the disease, the type of vaccine, whether the dog is used for breeding, and the geographical area where the dog lives or may visit.
Bordetella and parainfluenza: For complete canine cough protection, we recommend Intra-Trac II ADT. For dogs that are shown, in field trials, or are boarded, we recommend vaccination every six months with Intra-Trac II ADT.
Researchers at the Veterinary Schools at the University of Minnesota, Colorado State Univers
Researchers at the Veterinary Schools at the University of Minnesota, Colorado State University, and University of Wisconsin suggest alternating vaccinations in dogs from year to year. Instead of using multivalent vaccines (combination vaccines against more than one disease), they recommend using monovalent vaccines which only have one component, e.g., a vaccine that only contains parvovirus. So, one year your dog would be vaccinated against distemper, the next year against canine adenovirus-2, and the third year against parvovirus. Then the cycle would repeat itself. Other researchers believe we may not have enough information to recommend only vaccinating every 3 years. Manufacturers of dog vaccines have not changed their labeling which recommends annual vaccinations. Again, each dog owner must make an informed choice of when to vaccinate, and with what. Consult with your veterinarian to help you make the decision.

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