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Why do men like dogs and girls like cats?

I know there will be exceptions... but this is what I notice normally. Is it something to do with our sex or what?

Think of a stereotyped couple from the ages when these animals were domesticated (BC).
The man is masculine and adventurous. Strong and brave and his family depend on him.
The woman is feminine, housebound and must depend on their nearest male relative.

The typical dog is adventurous, strong and brave. And can also follow it's owner outside the house.
The typical cat stays in the house or around the area it knows. Domesticated cats aren't very good hunters but dogs can be trained to hunt. A cat depends on it's family for food and housing (supposably like women) and a dog can hunt it's own food for it's family and itself.

Generally we prefer the people who we share common factors with, so women have always seen their commodities with cats and men with dogs.

A dog is a "man's best friend" afterall.

Why Female Dogs Hump

Girl Dogs and Humping

It is true that female dogs are less likely to hump than are male dogs, but they do practice the habit from puppy-hood well into adulthood. Some people find the behavior cute; when a female dog grabs hold of Uncle Ben's leg and starts going to town. In almost every single case, the person being accosted is NOT going to find the encounter humorous or entertaining at all. It is rude, unacceptable, and an absolute doggy NO-NO!

Humping in Dogs

My top 5 reasons why female dogs hump are listed below. Being able to identify which may be afflicting your dog can help prevent doggy humping from occurring at the most inopportune times!

How to Stop Female Dog Humping Behavior - Modification Technique

Why The Top Dog Always Feeds the Pack 

When one person is being singled out for humping, the dog is directly challenging that person for a ranking pack position. To resolve this behavior, this person should be the only human to feed the dog for at least a full month. When the dog realizes that she must rely solely on this person for food, her challenge will simply end along with the dominant humping behavior toward this person.

5 Reasons Your Female Dog is Humping

There are many reasons why dogs hump. The list here presents the top 5 causes that in my experience, have female dogs in a "Wednesday"* kind of mood.
To express dominance over a person or thing
To express dominance over litter or pack mates
To feel stimulation on a sexual level
To relieve irritated genitals
Because it Has become an addiction

These 5 reasons will be discussed and a couple of behavior modification techniques will be provided to help curb the need your canine bitch has for humping.

* "hump-day" reference

Dominant Female Dogs Want it Their Way

A dominant bitch will want to have the final say in how she travels. But it is up to you to keep her safe. No doggy heads outside of car windows!

1. Female Dogs Express Dominance Over a Person or Thing

Does Humping Mean My Dog Thinks She is the Boss?

In a word, yes. The practice of canine humping gives the term "top dog" real meaning. When a female dog humps a person or thing, it can be to claim the dominant position or ranking over said person or thing. Even as humping is an inherent behavior in all dogs, the action can manifest from stress, anxiety, emotional outbursts, or as an invitation to start playing. How each encounter of humping begins depends entirely on the dog's emotional status when the event is triggered.

Dog to Human Dominance Must be Stopped!

It is important to know that should your female dog (or any dog) practice "humping for dominance" on humans, it must be resolved and discontinued promptly. The dog has to respect that ALL humans are the dominant pack member and "top dog" in every situation and at all times. This status is never to be challenged by the K9 (including children). If your dog is acting out in this manner—humping one particular member of the family—an immediate behavior modification is in order. To discover one effective way to show your dog that all humans are, in fact, the dominant pack member, read the blue highlighted area at above right titled, "How to Stop Female Dog Humping - Behavior Modification Technique".

About Disciplining a Dog

Deference: humble submission and respect.

It is never good practice to assert your pack rank in a physically or emotionally painful manner. Deference is the way of the canine, and as the ranking pack member, you must lead with this is mind.
Synonyms: respect - regard - esteem - reverence - obeisance

Female Dogs Hump to Express Dominance Over Litter or Pack Mates

Puppy Socialization and Humping

When a female puppy humps a litter mate, it can be for a couple of reasons. First, it is clear that puppies really like to play, and humping—being inherent in all dogs—is just part of that play experience.

Second, humping helps puppies to orient sexual behavior for adulthood. It teaches them the interactions, appropriate techniques, and dominant placement for later breeding.

Both of these tactics are needed for a female pup to become a well socialized bitch, and with proper occurrence and timing, is it vital in sustaining the successful reproduction of the species.

Healthy vs Unhealthy Humping Behavior in Puppies 

Even as humping has its place in the development of well-adjusted dogs, it can become an obsession if allowed to deviate from normal social behavior. If you recognize that a puppy is becoming too captivated by the behavior, you must divert her attention to something else. This is done simply by interrupting the obsession with a toy, task commands, or other attention grabber. Avoid being too harsh with your corrections, and keep it fun for the puppy. After all is said and done, you don't want to create a new negative behavior while curbing another.

Never take a female dog who is in heat to the dog park! This can cause a frenzy of miss behavior among normally obedient dogs.
Source: k9keystrokes

Female Dogs Hump to Feel Stimulation on a Sexual Level

Female Dogs Hump Because it Feels Good

This should not be too surprising; female dogs hump because they like the way it feels. This would seem more likely attributed to male dogs, because humping is considered a sexually dimorphic1 behavior, when in actuality it is regularly seen in both sexes. When female dogs come into heat, the behavior can quickly become a 'hump-palooza' throughout the pack, resulting in everyone humping someone or something.Dog parks, for our domesticated pets, can replace this pack mentality in a flash. Should a single female show up at the dog park while in heat, an almost instant change in dog dynamics is sure to take place. Caution in such situations should be taken, as fights resulting in injury can occur (to dogs as well as their humans). Also, with this frenzy of behavior "Fee-fee" may just have some explaining to do 63 days later when a few new puppy muzzles show up at the pet food dish!

1Sexual dimorphism is the difference in morphology between male and female members of the same species. Sexual dimorphism includes differences in size, coloration, or body structure between the sexes. Most noticeably seen in the fact that a male lion has a mane, whereas a female does not.

What You Think Really Does Matter!

Have you been the victim of, or a witness to, a human being humped by a dog?
Yes. It is a very rude behavior!
No. But, I have heard from people who have, and they did not like it.
My dog humps people all of the time, it is hilarious!
My dog humps and I just can't break her of the habit. Help!
Don't have a dog in my house for this reason. Not worth the risk of this kind of embarrassment!
Female Dogs Hump to Relieve Irritated Genitals

Dogs Hump Because Stuff Gets Itchy

If your girl dog is suffering from an irritation in her genital area, humping may result as a way to soothe the problem. The issue that can accompany this particular cause is, in some cases, that by conducting the soothing (humping) action, the results can end in obsessive compulsive behavior (OCD). Here's why: Should irritation in the genital region go unrecognized and untreated, it can turn into a serious problem for the dog physically and emotionally. It can become a circle of never ending bad behavior—the irritation makes things itchy, the dog humps to resolve the itch, pleasure replaces the itching, the dog's brain gets looped into relating the pleasurable feeling with the humping, and the whole thing runs full circle over-and-over again. The only way to fix this is to treat the physical ailment, and then break the OCD habit over time. A good old fashioned Water-Bottle-of-Obedience (a squirt bottle full of water) may be helpful in redirecting the dog's attention elsewhere.

OCD is not uncommon among retrieving breeds of dogs; fetching until they drop is an indicator. These same female dogs can become addicted to humping quite easily.
Source: K9keystrokes

Female Dogs Hump Because it Has Become an Addiction

My Female Dog has a Humping Addiction; Time for Rehab!

Just like any other reason a being would become addicted to something, dogs get addicted to humping because it makes their brain pump out chemicals that say, "Yowza! This is great stuff!" Spaying your dog is unlikely to stop the addiction, but it can reduce the craving because of the "reproductive" nature of the act. Less hormones screaming, "breed!" toyour female dog can certainly give you an edge in rehabilitating her.

Below you will find four behavior modifications that may help to rehabilitate your female dog's humping addiction. This takes time, so enlisting your highest degree of patience is recommended.

Modification Techniques for Female Dogs That Habitually Hump

Avoid mean spirited or harsh correction techniques. In such instances a gentle hand will bring greater success and in a shorter amount of time.
Teach your addicted dog 'task' commands; sit, stay, seek, fetch, settle, hunt for the toy—or anything else that she likes to do.
When the humping behavior rears its ugly head, use the task commands to divert her attention.
A squirt bottle filled with water can surprise a dog into discontinuing her humping. This should be done from a distance, creating an 'act of God' diversion. Your dog will associate the discomfort and startling strike of water to an unknown source, which brings a fast behavior revising result. (The bonus is that the discipline is not related to you in any way, but is considered an 'act of God' to your dog.)

Wrapping It All Up

When your female dog has become fixated on humping, it can become embarrassing to say the least. Curbing the behavior through diversion, calm respectful dominant leadership, and maybe a squirt or two of liquid Behavior-Modification can turn the situation into a thing of the past.

No matter the modification technique you employ, if the behavior continues regardless of your efforts, it is important to check in with your vet. The humping habit may contain an underlying cause that only your veterinarian can detect and treat effectively!

Calories (protein and fat energy) Found in Animal Meats For Dogs
(click column header to sort results)
FOOD SOURCES (3.5oz /100g)  
ENERGY (calories / kcals)  
PROTEIN (grams)  
FAT (grams)  
Chicken Meat
Chicken meat with skin
Duck meat
Duck meat with skin
Lean beef
Turkey without skin
Trace amounts
Calculations derived from Dr. Bruce Fogle's book on "Natural Dog Care".

Top 10 Most Dog Friendly Cities in America

Looking to travel and not sure where you and your family, including your four legged family member, should go? Picking places that will welcome your dog with arms as open as those that welcome you can be tricky, so here’s a list of the top 10 dog friendly cities in the United States. All photos are from and the dogs in the photos are in the cities listed.

10. San Diego, California

Thanks to the warm climate, this is a year round playground for pets and pet lovers. With locations like the Otay Ranch Town Shopping Center, which has an off-leash park as part of the facility, and a number of pet friendly restaurants like Nine-Ten Restaurant and Bar, this is the ideal location for the pet lover with travel on their mind. 

9. Long Beach, California

Home to the Most Beautiful Bulldog Competition, Easter and Howl o’ween parades, and the only off-leash dog park in LA County. With restaurants and bars that cater to both people and their dogs, this is a great spot to enjoy a refreshing lunch while your dog enjoys dog treats right next to you. 

8. Carmel, California

Home to the pet friendly Cypress Inn on Lincoln Street (co-owned by the legendary Doris Day), this city is great for the active pet family as it features numerous walking tours to enjoy the towns scenic charms

7. Portland, Oregon

Home to The Lucky Labrador Brewing Company, this brewery is the perfect place for you to take the edge off after a long day of travel with one of their dog-inspired brews while your dog relaxes beside you. If you need something to wake you up instead, the Iron Mutt Coffee Company is perfect for getting your caffeine fix while your dog enjoys either a Himalayan Dog Chew from you, or a free dog biscuit from the employees. 

6. Seattle, Washington

When staying in Seattle, the Pensione Nichols Bed and Breakfast should be first on your list thanks to their pet-friendly standards and great location. From there it’s easy to enjoy many of Seattle’s pet-friendly amenities, especially since well-behaved dogs are allowed on all of Seattle’s buses and trains. Couple that with numerous eateries that welcome well-behaved pets and it’s easy to see why Seattle is one of the top pet-friendly cities in the country. 

5. Chicago, Illinois

While the Cubs might not be winning the World Series just yet, the White Sox do offer a Dog Day baseball game every spring. Numerous upscale hotels such as the Hotel Burnham and Hotel Monaco welcome dogs of all sizes, and Lake Michigan offers more than 18 miles of paved trails that are great for exercising both you and your dog. At the end of the day, swing by Cucina’s on either N. Sedgwick or W. Diversey where your dog will be served a complimentary bowl of pasta. 

4. New York City, New York

Many of the most upscale and fashionable hotels in this city open their doors to dogs, including the Soho Grand Hotel and the Muse Hotel. The NYC Dog Walking Tour is a great way to see the city and get your dog some much needed exercise, and of course there’s always a carriage ride through Central Park to really enjoy the sights of the city.

3. Orlando, Florida

When in Orlando, be sure to visit Sam Snead’s, the location where Governor Jeb Bush signed the doggy dining law that allows well-behaved dogs to sit with their owners at outside locations. Thanks to the location of Disney World and Universal Studios, many hotels in the area are pet friendly and even offer dog-sitting services while you and your family go and enjoy the park. 

2. Colorado Springs, Colorado

All about nature and the great outdoors, Colorado Springs is a great place for dogs that love to romp and have fun. With numerous nature preserves and parks where you can let your dog off the leash and just run and enjoy themselves, it’s easy to forget that Colorado Springs also offers many pet friendly hotels where both you and your dog can be spoiled and pampered. 

1. Austin, Texas

Boasting 12 off-leash parks, Austin is a dream come true for both pet owners and the pets themselves. Whether cooling off in the creek at Bull Creek District Park or taking a tour of the city in horse-drawn carriage, there are plenty of ways for your dog to enjoy themselves while in Austin. A large number of restaurants and stores welcome dogs, so be sure to take them out with you when you’re hitting the town and enjoy the sights of this beautiful Texas city with your best four-legged friends.

America's Most Popular Dogs

Bo, the Portuguese Water Dog greeted this weekend by the Obamas, may be lapping up the limelight, but the Labrador Retriever is most Americans' top dog.

Other favorites include the Yorkshire Terrier, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Beagle, Boxer, Dachshund, Bulldog, Poodle and Shih Tzu, according to the American Kennel Club's recent report of the country's Top 10 dog breeds. Rankings are based on the breeds most registered in the U.S.

"The list reflects the times," says Sarah Wilson, expert for PBS' Why We Love Cats and Dogs. "These dogs are friendly and happy and love to lie on their owner's lap. People want a dog that is a companion and [that] they can cuddle with."

That's expected to be the case with Bo, a breed of dog that's "very spirited and energetic," says Daisy Okas, assistant vice president of communications at the American Kennel Club. Bred Portuguese Water Dogs typically sell for between $1,800 and $2,500 and grow to weigh about 35 to 60 pounds, depending on sex. Such relatively small dogs are popular among today's owners. In fact, downsizing dogs is one of the animal world's biggest trends, as pups less than 20 pounds account for half the dogs on the list.

One of the most noteworthy of these small breeds is the bulldog, which made the No. 8 spot in 2009. After 70 years at a lower ranking, the Bulldog returned to the top 10 list just last year. The bulldog is especially popular in Las Vegas, where it ranks second in popularity, as well as Boston and Orlando, where it ranks third.

The bulldog, known for its adaptive nature and love of people, makes a great family pet, says Lisa Peterson, spokesperson for the American Kennel Cub (AKC). Since they don't require a lot of exercise, bulldogs are ideal for owners with busy schedules or those who prefer watching television to going for a hike.

But the biggest trend in the canine world can't be found at Westminster or on AKC's list. There has been a growing interest in mixed breeds and rescue dogs. 

"The chic thing to do is adopt a dog," Wilson says. "Saving a life and helping an animal in need is a sign of the times."

What's also a sign of the times is the sheer number of breeds available to dog lovers. When the AKC was established in 1884, it registered just nine breeds; today, it recognizes 161.

The Pointer and Chesapeake Bay Retriever were the original top two dogs. The others on that 1884 list of breeds--the English Setter, Gordon Setter, Irish Setter, Clumber Spaniel, Cocker Spaniel and Irish Water Spaniel--are all currently members of the sporting group, a classification for dogs bred to help man find and retrieve game.

Today, dogs fill a different need--they act primarily as companions. A U.S. family today is more likely to have a dog than to have children. Wilson attributes this statistic to America's aging population.

Despite the economy, people continue to indulge their pets. Spending on pet supplies and over-the-counter medicines for pets is projected to have increased 5.1% last year to $10.3 billion, according to the American Pet Products Association.

"No matter how tough the times get, there is still a sense of security when it comes to dogs," says Jason Taylor, external relations manager at P&G Pet Care/Eukanuba. "The pet industry is pretty resilient, since they are so much a part of our lives."

What country has the most dogs?

What country has the most dogs?

Kevisaurus is correct. The US has the most dogs. Estimates vary from 46 million to 61 million according to various sources on the Internet. That also gives the US the highest dog ownership rate in the world. According to the American Vetinerary Medical Association, 37.2 per cent of US households owned a dog in 2007.

However, Kevisaurus not quite on the mark re China. Brazil has the second highest number of dogs (around 30 million). China only has around 20 million dogs (maybe that's because more are eaten than are kept as pets).

A country with a dog ownership rate almost as high as the US is South Africa (maybe that's because they need them there as guard dogs more than as pets)

Study shows dog-loving Ireland hates cats

That cat may try to look all cute and Irish, but in Ireland, the dog will always win out

The Irish love their dogs, but aren’t a big fan of cats, according to a new study about pet ownership in Ireland.

Research by University College Dublin (UCD) found that 36 percent of homes in Ireland have a dog, while just one in 10 homes own a cat.

The dog-to-cat ratio is much more drastic than in most other countries. For instance, in the U.S., 37 percent of homes have dogs while 32 percent have cats, while in Britain, the split is even smaller with 22 percent dogs and 18 percent cats.

But Ireland is unequivocally a nation of dog lovers.

Researchers believe the Irish bias towards dogs may be linked to the significance and prevalence of farming and rural life in Ireland, and the fact that many more Irish citizens live in spacious houses, rather than small apartments. The study also states that in Ireland, dogs are viewed as pets while cats are largely considered stray animals.

The Mars company, which manufactures Pedigree dog food and Whiskas cat products, confirmed the trend, saying: “Ireland is unique in Europe. Other countries are much more cat-loving. We tend to have houses as opposed to apartments, so we have the space to look after dogs while cats are more conducive to apartment-living, which is how people are more likely to live on the continent.”

Tony Forshaw of the Siamese and All Breeds Cat Club of Ireland told the Times that there isn’t a history of owning cats in Ireland, compared with the U.S. or Britain, and that “Irish people tend to laugh at cats.”

Forshaw blames the Irish dog bias on the fact that man’s best friend gets more screen time in movies and TV.

“On films and television you’ll always see people with dogs, you rarely see cats,” he said. “But after that advert on television with the hairless sphinx cat there was a huge amount of people ringing up looking for one of them. When people see cats in a popular context, they do go looking for them.”

Apparently not all Irish people are laughing at felines – the UCD study confirmed the stereotype most cat owners are elderly women.

Research shows that Irish cat owners are 1.5 times more likely to be female, and that those aged 55 to 64 were more than twice as likely to own a cat than 18 to 24-year-olds.

Martin Downes of the UCD Veterinary Science Center told the Times: “Older women are more likely to own cats than anyone else. It’s probably for companionship and it’s a lot easier to manage a cat because you don’t have to walk it every day.”

Vaccination Schedule for Dogs

A possible vaccination schedule for the "average" dog is shown below.

5 weeksParvovirus: For puppies at high risk. Check with your veterinarian.
6 & 9
Combination vaccine* without leptospirosis.Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
12 weeks
or older
Rabies: Given by your local veterinarian (age at vaccination may vary according to local law).
12 & 15
Combination vaccine*Leptospirosis: include leptospirosis in the combination vaccine where leptospirosis is a concern, or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
Lyme: where Lyme disease is a concern or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
AdultCombination vaccine*Leptospirosis: include leptospirosis in the combination vaccine where leptospirosis is a concern, or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Coronavirus: where coronavirus is a concern.
Lyme: where Lyme disease is a concern or if traveling to an area where it occurs.
Rabies: Given by your local veterinarian (time interval between vaccinations may vary according to local law).
Recommendations vary depending on the age, breed, and health status of the dog, the potential of the dog to be exposed to the disease, the type of vaccine, whether the dog is used for breeding, and the geographical area where the dog lives or may visit.
*A combination vaccine, often called a 5-way vaccine, usually includes adenovirus cough and hepatitis, canine distemper, parainfluenza, and parvovirus. Some combination vaccines may also include leptospirosis (7-way vaccines) and/or coronavirus. The inclusion of either canine adenovirus-1 or adenovirus-2 in a vaccine will protect against both adenovirus cough and hepatitis; adenovirus-2 is highly preferred.
**Some puppies may need additional vaccinations against parvovirus after 15 weeks of age. Consult with your local veterinarian.
Bordetella and parainfluenza: For complete canine cough protection, we recommend Intra-Trac III ADT. For dogs that are shown, in field trials, or are boarded, we recommend vaccination every six to twelve months with Intra-Trac III ADT.

Canine and Feline Vaccination Guidelines

UC Davis VMTH Canine and Feline Vaccination Guidelines (Revised 11/09)

The UC Davis VMTH vaccination guidelines below have been based on recently published studies and recommendations made by task forces (including the AAFP/AFM Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines, AAHA Canine Vaccine Task Force, and the AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents), which include representatives from academia, private practices, governmental regulatory bodies, and industry. These groups have evaluated the benefits versus risks of the vaccines currently available on the market. Interested readers are referred to documents published by these groups for further information (see References and Resources listed at the end of this document). The document below has been generated by a group of faculty and staff at UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine for the purposes of VMTH veterinary student education and as a reference for referring veterinarians. These are only general guidelines, as the vaccine types recommended and the frequency of vaccination vary depending on the lifestyle of the pet being vaccinated, i.e. indoor vs outdoor pets, travel plans, kennel/boarding plans, and underlying disease conditions such as immune-mediated diseases or pre-existing infections such as FIV infection. Because these factors may change over time, we recommend the vaccination plan for each individual pet be decided by the owner at routine annual examinations, following a discussion between the veterinarian and the client regarding the animal's lifestyle in the year ahead. Guidelines for vaccination in shelter situations can be accessed at the Center for Companion Animal Health's shelter medicine website. A previous history of vaccination reactions in an individual pet will also affect recommendations for vaccination. For all vaccines given, the product, expiration date, lot number, route and location of injection is documented in the record.

It should also be noted that much research in the area of companion animal vaccinology is required to generate optimal recommendations for vaccination of dogs and cats. As further research is performed, and as new vaccines become available on the market, this document will be continuously updated and modified.
Canine Vaccination Guidelines

Canine Core Vaccines
Core vaccines are recommended for all puppies and dogs with an unknown vaccination history. The diseases involved have significant morbidity and mortality and are widely distributed, and in general, vaccination results in relatively good protection from disease. These include vaccines for canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), and rabies.

Canine Parvovirus, Distemper Virus, and Adenovirus-2 Vaccines
For initial puppy vaccination (รข‰¤ 16 weeks), one dose of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 is recommended every 3-4 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given no sooner than 16 weeks of age. For dogs older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 given 3-4 weeks apart are recommended. After a booster at one year, revaccination is recommended every 3 years thereafter, ideally using a product approved for 3-year administration, unless there are special circumstances that warrant more or less frequent revaccination. Note that recommendations for killed parvovirus vaccines and recombinant CDV vaccines are different from the above. These vaccines are not currently stocked by our pharmacy or routinely used at the VMTH. We do not recommend vaccination with CAV-1 vaccines, since vaccination with CAV-2 results in immunity to CAV-1, and the use of CAV-2 vaccines results in less frequent adverse events.

Canine Rabies Virus Vaccines
In accordance with California state law, we recommend that puppies receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine at 16 weeks of age. Adult dogs with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine. A booster is required one year later, and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration.

Canine Non-Core Vaccines
Non-core vaccines are optional vaccines that should be considered in light of the exposure risk of the animal, ie. based on geographic distribution and the lifestyle of the pet. Several of the diseases involved are often self-limiting or respond readily to treatment. Vaccines considered as non-core vaccines are canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV), canine influenza virus, distemper-measles combination vaccine, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Leptospira spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccination with these vaccines is generally less effective in protecting against disease than vaccination with the core vaccines.

Canine Parainfluenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica
These are both agents associated with kennel cough in dogs. For Bordetella bronchiseptica, intranasal vaccination with live avirulent bacteria is recommended for dogs expected to board, be shown, or to enter a kennel situation within 6 months of the time of vaccination. We currently stock the intranasal vaccine containing both B. bronchiseptica and CPiV. For puppies and previously unvaccinated dogs, only one dose of this vaccine is required (recommendations differ for the parenteral, killed form of this vaccine). Most boarding kennels require that this vaccine be given within 6 months of boarding; the vaccine should be administered at least one week prior to the anticipated boarding date for maximum effect.

Canine Influenza Virus (CIV)
Canine influenza virus (H3N8) emerged in the United States in greyhounds in Florida in 2003. The virus is now enzootic in many dog populations in Colorado, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. The virus causes upper respiratory signs including a cough, nasal discharge, and a low-grade fever followed by recovery. A small percentage of dogs develop more severe signs in association with hemorrhagic pneumonia. A vaccine is commercially available, which at the time of writing has a 1-year conditional licensure. Based on evidence provided by the manufacturer, the vaccine may reduce clinical signs and virus shedding in dogs infected by CIV. It may be useful for dogs traveling and intermingling with other dog populations in areas where the virus is enzootic. The performance of the vaccine and its duration of immunity in the field are unknown. At the time of writing, only a few cases of CIV infection have been documented in northern California and the infection has not been widely documented in the general dog population, so we do not recommend routine vaccination for dogs expected to board, be shown, or enter a kennel situation within northern California. Vaccination may have the potential to interfere with the results of serological testing, which in non-endemic areas are useful to assist diagnosis. The UC Davis VMTH does not stock the CIV vaccine or recommend it for use in dogs residing solely in northern California.

Canine Distemper-Measles Combination Vaccine
This vaccine has been used between 4 and 12 weeks of age to protect dogs against distemper in the face of maternal antibodies directed at CDV. Protection occurs within 72 hours of vaccination. It is indicated only for use in households/kennels/shelters where CDV is a recognized problem. Only one dose of the vaccine should be given, after which pups are boostered with the CDV vaccine to minimize the transfer of anti-measles virus maternal antibodies to pups of the next generation. The AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines state that 'recent unpublished studies have shown that the recombinant CDV vaccine immunizes puppies in the face of passively acquired maternal antibodies. Therefore, the distemper-measles vaccine is no longer the preferred option'. The UC Davis VMTH does not stock these vaccines as situations requiring their use do not arise commonly in our hospital population.

Canine Leptospira Vaccines
Multiple leptospiral serovars are capable of causing disease in dogs, and minimal cross-protection is induced by each serovar. Currently available vaccines do not contain all serovars, efficacies against infection with the targeted serovar are between 50 and 75%, and duration of immunity is probably about 1 year. However, leptospirosis is not uncommon in Northern Californian dogs with exposure histories involving livestock and areas frequented by wild mammals, the disease can be fatal or have high morbidity, and also has zoonotic potential. Therefore, we suggest annual vaccination of dogs living in/visiting rural areas or areas frequented by wildlife with vaccines containing all four leptospiral serovars (grippotyphosa, pomona, canicola and icterohemorrhagiae), ideally before the rainy season, when disease incidence peaks. The initial vaccination should be followed by a booster 2-4 weeks later, and the first vaccine be given no earlier than 12 weeks of age. In general, leptospiral vaccines have been associated with more severe postvaccinal reactions (acute anaphylaxis) than other vaccines. Whether the recent introduction of vaccines with reduced amounts of foreign protein has reduced this problem is still unclear. Vaccination of dogs in suburban areas with minimal exposure to farm animals or forested areas is not recommended. Anecdotally, the incidence of reactions has been greatest in puppies (< 12 weeks of age, and especially < 9 weeks of age) and small-breed dogs. A careful risk-benefit analysis is recommended before considering vaccination of small breed dogs at risk of exposure to leptospires.

Canine Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) Vaccine
The incidence of Lyme disease in California is currently considered extremely low. Furthermore, use of the vaccine even in endemic areas (such as the east coast of the US) has been controversial because of anecdotal reports of vaccine-associated adverse events. Most infected dogs show no clinical signs, and the majority of dogs contracting Lyme disease respond to treatment with antimicrobials. Furthermore, prophylaxis may be effectively achieved by preventing exposure to the tick vector. If travel to endemic areas (ie the east coast) is anticipated, vaccination with the Lyme subunit or OspC/OspA-containing bivalent bacterin vaccine could be considered, followed by boosters at intervals in line with risk of exposure. The UC Davis VMTH does not stock the Lyme vaccine or recommend it for use in dogs residing solely in northern California.

Other Canine Vaccines
Several other canine vaccines are currently available on the market. These are vaccines for canine coronavirus, Giardia spp., canine adenovirus-1, rattlesnake envenomation, and Porphyromonas vaccine. The reports of the AVMA and the AAHA canine vaccine task force have listed the first three vaccines as not generally recommended, because 'the diseases are either of little clinical significance or respond readily to treatment', evidence for efficacy of these vaccines is minimal, and they may 'produce adverse events with limited benefit'. Currently, information regarding the efficacy of the canine rattlesnake and Porphyromonas vaccines is insufficient. The UC Davis VMTH does not stock or routinely recommend use of these four vaccines.

Canine Coronavirus Vaccine
Infection with canine enteric coronavirus (CCV) alone has been associated with mild disease only, and only in dogs < 6 weeks of age. It has not been possible to reproduce the infection experimentally, unless immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids are administered. Serum antibodies do not correlate with resistance to infection, and duration of immunity is unknown. In mixed infections with CCV and canine parvovirus (CPV), CPV is the major pathogen. Vaccination against CPV therefore protects puppies from disease following simultaneous infection with both canine enteric coronavirus and CPV. Thus, the UC Davis VMTH does not routinely recommend vaccination against canine enteric coronavirus and the vaccine is not stocked by our pharmacy.

Canine Giardia spp. Vaccine
Approximately 90% of dogs respond to treatment for Giardia infection, most infected dogs are asymptomatic, and the disease is not usually life-threatening. The vaccine does not prevent infection but may reduce shedding and clinical signs. The zoonotic potential of Giardia remains unclear. Based on existing evidence, the UC Davis VMTH does not currently recommend routine vaccination of dogs for Giardia spp, and the vaccine is not stocked by our pharmacy.

Canine Rattlesnake Vaccine
The canine rattlesnake vaccine comprises venom components from Crotalus atrox (western diamondback). Although a rattlesnake vaccine may be potentially useful for dogs that frequently encounter rattlesnakes, currently we are unable to recommend this vaccine because of insufficient information regarding the efficacy of the vaccine in dogs. Dogs develop neutralizing antibody titers to C. atrox venom, and may also develop antibody titers to components of other rattlesnake venoms, but research in this area is ongoing. Owners of vaccinated dogs must still seek veterinary care immediately in the event of a bite, because 1) the type of snake is often unknown; 2) antibody titers may be overwhelmed in the face of severe envenomation, and 3) an individual dog may lack sufficient protection depending on its response to the vaccine and the time elapsed since vaccination. According to the manufacturer, to date, rare vaccinated dogs have died following a bite when there were substantial delays (12-24 hours) in seeking treatment. Recommendations for booster vaccination are still under development, but it appears that adequate titers do not persist beyond one year after vaccination. Adverse reactions appear to be low and consistent with those resulting from vaccination with other products available on the market. The product license is currently conditional as efficacy and potency have not been fully demonstrated. Based on existing evidence, the UC Davis VMTH does not currently recommend routine vaccination of dogs for rattlesnake envenomation, and the vaccine is not stocked by our pharmacy.

Canine Porphyromonas Vaccine
The canine Porphyromonas vaccine is an inactivated Porphyromonas denticanis, P. gulae and P. salivosa bacterin. It has been marketed 'as an adjunct to professional dental cleaning, periodontal therapy, and owner-administrated dental care routines' to prevent periodontitis, as demonstrated by a reduction in bone changes (bone loss/sclerosis) in mice used as an experimental model. The manufacturer recommends that primary vaccination consist of 2 doses given subcutaneously 3 weeks apart. The product license is currently conditional as efficacy and potency have not been demonstrated in dogs. Based on existing evidence, the UC Davis VMTH does not currently recommend routine vaccination of dogs for periodontal disease with this vaccine, and the vaccine is not stocked by our pharmacy.

Feline Vaccination Guidelines

In general, guidelines for vaccination of cats have been strongly influenced by the appearance of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats, and in particular their epidemiologic association with feline leukemia virus vaccines and killed rabies virus vaccines. Thus, there is clear evidence for minimizing frequency of vaccination in cats. The recommendations below have been made in light of the AVMA/AAHA/AAFP/VCS task force recommendations on vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats. Risk factors for sarcomas should be discussed with cat owners at the time of examination. If a cat develops a palpable granuloma at the site of previous vaccination, the benefits vs risks of future vaccinations should be carefully considered. All vaccine-associated sarcomas should be reported to the vaccine manufacturer, the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics, and the AVMA.

Feline Core Vaccines
The definitions of core and non-core vaccines described in the canine vaccination guidelines above also apply to the feline vaccines. The core feline vaccines are those for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and rabies.

Feline Herpesvirus 1, Feline Calicivirus and Feline Panleukopenia Virus Vaccines
For initial kitten vaccination (<16 weeks), one dose of parenteral vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) FHV1, FCV, and FPV is recommended every 3-4 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given no sooner than 16 weeks of age. For cats older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) FHV1, FCV, and FPV given 3-4 weeks apart are recommended. After a booster at one year, revaccination is suggested every 3 years thereafter for cats at low risk of exposure. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, these vaccines are administered over the right shoulder. Note that recommendations for killed and intranasal FHV1 and FCV vaccines are different from the above. Killed and intranasal varieties of these vaccines are not routinely used at the VMTH. The use of FPV MLV vaccines should be avoided in pregnant queens and kittens less than one month of age.

Feline Rabies Virus Vaccines
Cats are important in the epidemiology of rabies in the US. In general we recommend that kittens receive a single dose of killed or recombinant rabies vaccine at 12-16 weeks of age. Adult cats with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed or recombinant rabies vaccine. For the recombinant vaccines, boosters are recommended at yearly intervals. We currently stock and suggest the use of the recombinant rabies vaccine, although there is no evidence as yet that it is associated with a decreased risk of sarcoma formation. For the killed rabies vaccines, a booster is required at one year, and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, rabies vaccines are administered subcutaneously as distally as possible in the right rear limb.

Feline Non-Core Vaccines
Optional or non-core vaccines for cats consist of the vaccines for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus, virulent FCV, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica.

Feline Leukemia Virus Vaccine
A number of FeLV vaccines are available on the market. The whole inactivated viral vaccines have recently been shown to be highly efficacious based on the results of molecular detection methods for FeLV, even producing sterilizing immunity, although this was not found to be the case for a inactivated mixed subunit vaccine (Torres et al, 2009). We recommend vaccination of FeLV-negative cats allowed to go outdoors or cats having direct contact with other cats of unknown FeLV status. Vaccination is most likely to be useful in kittens and young adult cats, because acquired resistance to infection develops beyond 16 weeks of age. As of 2006, the AAFP recommends primary vaccination of all kittens for FeLV, but the decision to administer booster vaccines is based on risk assessment. Vaccination is not recommended for FeLV-positive cats and indoor cats with no likelihood of exposure to FeLV.

Because of concerns relating to sarcoma formation following administration of killed, adjuvanted vaccines, we currently stock and suggest the use of the recombinant transdermal FeLV vaccine. This vaccine does not produce chronic inflammatory reactions, which are a prerequisite for sarcoma induction. Its efficacy has been demonstrated only using commonly used antigen detection methods, and not highly sensitive nucleic acid detection methods. Therefore, it is uncertain whether immunity is of priming or sterilizing nature.

Initially, two doses of FeLV vaccine are given at 2-4 week intervals, after which annual boosters are recommended depending on risk. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, parenteral FeLV vaccines are administered subcutaneously as distally as possible in the left rear limb.

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine
The FIV vaccine is an inactivated, adjuvented dual subtype vaccine that was released in July 2002. Unfortunately, vaccination of FIV-negative cats renders currently available serologic tests (ELISA and Western blot) positive for at least a year following vaccination, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests do not reliably identify cats with natural infection. Previous vaccination does not prevent infection, and the significance of a positive test result in a vaccinated cat cannot be assessed. Questions remain regarding the vaccine's ability to protect against all of the FIV subtypes and strains to which cats might be exposed. Therefore, the decision regarding whether to use this vaccine is not straightforward, and the risks and benefits of the use of this vaccine should be carefully discussed with owners prior to using the vaccine in cats at risk of exposure. The UC Davis VMTH pharmacy does not stock this vaccine, and its routine use in indoor cats is not recommended.

Virulent Calicivirus Vaccine
The virulent FCV vaccine (Calicivax) is a killed, adjuvanted vaccine containing just one of many different strains of hypervirulent FCV known to cause severe systemic disease, including facial or limb edema, cutaneous ulceration, hepatocellular dysfunction, and high mortality. The disease is relatively rare, but has often involved otherwise healthy, adult cats that have been vaccinated with core vaccines containing FCV. In general, outbreaks have been self-limiting with no spread to the wider cat community. Although the virulent FCV vaccine has protected against challenge with the same FCV strain present in the vaccine, no field studies have yet been performed to determine whether it protects against other virulent strains. Given that the degree of serologic cross-reactivity between these strains is low, cross-protection does not seem very likely. Currently we do not recommend or stock this vaccine because 1) it is an adjuvanted vaccine that may increase risk of sarcoma formation; 2) the disease is rare and spread tends to be self-limiting; and 3) the degree of cross-protection between the strain included in the vaccine and other virulent FCV strains is unknown. For more information on this disease, the reader is referred to the Center for Companion Animal Health's Shelter Medicine document.

Feline Chlamydophila felis Vaccine
Chlamydophila felis causes conjunctivitis in cats that generally responds readily to antimicrobial treatment. Immunity induced by vaccination is probably of short duration and the vaccine provides only incomplete protection. The use of this vaccine could be considered for cats entering a population of cats where infection is known to be endemic. However, the vaccine has been associated with adverse reactions in 3% of vaccinated cats, and we do not recommend routine vaccination of low-risk cats with this vaccine. The C. felis vaccine is therefore not stocked by the VMTH pharmacy.

Feline Bordetella bronchiseptica Vaccine
This is a modified live intranasal vaccine. Bordetella bronchiseptica is primarily a problem of very young kittens, where it can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease. It appears to be uncommon in adult cats and pet cats in general. For these reasons, the UC Davis VMTH does not recommend routine vaccination of pet cats for Bordetella bronchiseptica. The vaccine could be considered for young cats at high risk of exposure in large, multiple cat environments. The UC Davis VMTH pharmacy does not stock this vaccine.

Other Feline Vaccines

Feline vaccines that have been listed as 'Not Generally Recommended' by the AAFP, include the feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) vaccine and the feline Giardia lamblia vaccine, which at the time of writing is of questionable availability.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis Vaccine
The FIP vaccine is an intranasal modified live virus product. The efficacy of this vaccine is controversial, and duration of immunity may be short, although the vaccine appears to be safe. Although exposure to feline coronaviruses in cat populations is high, the incidence of FIP is very low, especially in single-cat households (where it is 1 in 5000). Most cats in cattery situations where FIP is a problem become infected with coronaviruses prior to 16 weeks of age, which is the age at which vaccination is first recommended. Vaccination could be considered for seronegative cats entering a cattery where FIP is common. We do not routinely recommend vaccinating household cats with the FIP vaccine, and the vaccine is not stocked by our pharmacy.

Feline Giardia Vaccine
A killed Giardia vaccine has been marketed for use in cats. This vaccine has the same limitations as those listed above for canine giardiasis, and has the additional potential to induce vaccine-associated sarcomas. We currently do not recommend routine use of this vaccine in pet cats. The UC Davis VMTH pharmacy does not stock this vaccine.
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