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Showing posts with label Dog Diseases. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dog Diseases. Show all posts

2/3/13

Dogs : Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis

Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), previously known as canine rickettsiosis, canine hemorrhagic fever, tracker dog disease, canine tick typhus, Nairobi bleeding disorder, and tropical canine pancytopenia, is a tick-borne disease caused by rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, a small Gram-negative, coccoid bacterium. Ehrlichia canis is transmitted by the brown dog-tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The disease has been reported to occur in Asia, Africa, Europe, and America. To date, no effective vaccine has been developed and tick control remains the most effective preventive measure.

The course of ehrlichiosis can be divided into three phases: acute, subclinical, and chronic, each one being characterized by specific signs. Signs of the acute phase may include depression, lethargy, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and occasional bleeding under skin and in the internal eye that may result in retinal detachment and blindness. Other clinical signs may include vomiting, clear or pus-filled discharge form the eyes and nose, lameness, loss of movement coordination, and difficulty breathing.

Dog diseases : Juvenile Cellulitis and Complement System

Juvenile Cellulitis

Juvenile cellulitis, also called juvenile pyoderma, puppy strangles, juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis) is an uncommon disorder of the face, pinnae, and submandibular lymph nodes, usually in puppies. The condition is presumed to be immune-mediated based on histopathological features and response to immunosuppressive forms of therapy. 

A heritable nature has been suggested. Dachshunds, Golden Retrievers, yellow Labrador Retrievers, Gordon Setters, Lhasa Apsos, and Pointers are most commonly affected, but any other breed can have this disease. Most affected animals are less than 4 months old, but occasionally the disorder is reported in adults. Several puppies or only one in the litter may be affected. Signs are characterized by vesicles or pustules in the inner surface of the outer ear, on the muzzle, lips, and eyelids which rapidly progresses to extensive facial swelling, abscesses and draining lesions. 

2/2/13

Dog diseases : Intervertebral Disk Disease

The vertebral column, or backbone, consists of 34 individual bones called vertebrae. The vertebral column also includes the spinal cord and nerves, tendons, muscles, ligaments, intervertebral disks, and blood supply. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord and many internal organs, serves as a base of attachment for tendons and ligaments, provides structural support, connects the upper and lower body, and enables a wide range of body movement. The bones in the vertebral column also store minerals and produce red blood cells. The disks separate the vertebrae from each other. 

These "cushions" absorb the stress and shock that the body incurs during movement. IVD degeneration occurs in all breeds of dogs; however, it is observed most frequently in the chondrodystrophoid breeds (Dachshund, Pekingese, French bulldog, Beagle, Basset Hound, American Cocker Spaniel, Shih Tzu, Lhasa Apso, and generally dogs with short thick legs). The intervertebral disk protrusion, characterized by partial protrusion, is seen more commonly in the non-chondrodystrophoid dogs, and usually develops in dogs of 6-10 years of age.

Structure of Intervertebral Disc
The intervertebral disk consists of two regions: the outer layer called annulus fibrosus of cartilage-like material and the central region called nucleus pulposus. The central region is a gel-like structure in the young animal which becomes progressively dehydrated and less gel-like with age.

Dog diseases : Kartagener Syndrome and L-2-hydroxyglutaric Acidemia

Kartagener Syndrome

Kartagener syndrome (KS), also known as Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD), Kartagener Triad, Kartagener's Syndrome, Kartagener's Triad, and Siewert Syndrome, is is a rare congenital condition associated with abnormal retention of mucus and bacteria in the respiratory tract. The syndrome is caused by mutations of genes encoding proteins which are components of sperm and cilia in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts. Cilia are hairlike structures found in various bodily tissues. Patients with KS may have exercise intolerance and chronic, thick, discharge from the nose. Nasal polyps and ear disease are commonly seen affected individuals. Males with KS may be infertile due to impaired sperm motility.

Ciliated epithelium covers most areas of the upper respiratory tract, including the nasal mucosa, nasal passages, middle ear, eustachian (auditory) tube, and pharynx (throat). The lower respiratory tract contains ciliated epithelium from the trachea to the respiratory bronchioles. Cilia propel overlying mucus via a 2-part ciliary beat cycle. 

Dogs : Lens Luxation And Subluxation

Dislocation, or luxation, of the lens arises as a result of rupture of the zonular fibers, which suspend the lens from the ciliary body. In the dog, lens luxation is most frequently encountered as a primary, heritable condition in which there appears to be an inherent weakness of the zonule. In subluxation the lens remains in its normal position, but will be shifted down or to one side. 

In anterior luxation the lens may go through the pupil and lie in the anterior chamber, where it may rub against the cornea and cause corneal inflammation. Two forms of lens luxation have been described in dogs: traumatic and primary. Traumatic form is characterized by a severe concurrent intraocular damage. Traumatic lens displacements usually have a poor prognosis due to the severity of ocular damage.

Primary lens luxation is seen most frequently in the Wirehaired Fox Terrier, Sealyham, Welsh and Manchester Terrier, and occasionally in the Boston Terrier, Basset Hound, Border Collie, and Cocker Spaniel. The lens usually does not displace, however, until the individual is 2 to 5 years old. 

Dogs : Adrenal Cortical Atrophy

Adrenal cortical atrophy is the destruction of the outer layer of the adrenal glands which results in insufficient production of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid hormones. The adrenals are two crescent-shaped glands that sit on top of each kidney and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. They are divided anatomically and functionally into two main parts: the medulla (middle) and the cortex (rind). Furthermore, each division of an adrenal gland consists of internal layers that produce different hormones. Constant stress and poor nutrition can weaken the adrenal glands.

When stress continues over prolonged periods of time, the body's hormonal and energy reserves become depleted, and the glands may either shrink in size or enlarge. The destruction of the adrenal glands is a gradual process. Initially partial destruction of the adrenal cortex produces symptoms that are only obvious during stressful situations such as boarding, travel or surgery. 

Dogs : Acute Peritonitis

Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covering contained internal organs. In small animals, acute septic peritonitis is a relatively common and important condition with high mortality rates.

Fluids, organic debris, cells, infectious organisms, and pus accumulate in the cavity in acute peritonitis. The causes can be from external injury or internal infections or diseases, such as bowel puncture from trauma, rupture from disease or ingested foreign bodies, with escape of contaminated bowel contents into the abdominal cavity; infections from abdominal cavity puncture, or after surgery, or spreading from infections in other abdominal organs or other areas of the body; damage to the urinary system, with escape of urine into the abdominal cavity; damage to the pancreas or liver with escape of bile or pancreatic enzymes into the abdominal cavity; and rupture of an infected uterus or prostate gland. 

Dogs : Canine Cone Degeneration and Acromegaly

Canine Cone Degeneration

Achromatopsia, also called rod monochromacy, is an inherited condition characterized by decreased visual acuity, absent color vision, photophobia, and nystagmus. Achromatopsic humans report that colored objects appear in shades of gray. Two forms of this condition have been described in humans. 

Complete achromatopsia is a congenital vision disorder in which all cone function is absent or severely diminished. The incomplete (atypical) form is defined as dyschromatopsia, in which the symptoms are similar to those of the complete achromatopsia (typical) form but with less visual dysfunction. 

In dogs, the condition is referred to as canine cone degeneration. Cones are light-sensitive retinal photoreceptors in the vertebrate eye. Although cone cells account for only 5% of photoreceptors, they are essential for high-acuity daylight-vision and discrimination of color. Canine cone degenration is caused by mutation in the canine GNGB3 gene. In the Alaskan Malamute, the complete gene is deleted, while in the German Shorthaired Pointer, the gene has substituted amino acids. 

Dogs diseases : Acral Lick Dermatitis

Acral lick dermatitis, also referred to as lick granuloma, is a type of skin disorder that is characterized by recurrent skin lesions. There is often a history of poor or partial response to many therapeutic treatments. Bald, red, eroded or ulcerated lesions are created and maintained by constant licking or chewing. Large breed dogs, especially Doberman Pinschers, Great Danes, Golden and Labrador retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs and Boxers appear to be predisposed. Onset of lesions can occur at any age, but it is more common in dogs more than 5 years of age. 

If the underlying condition can be determined, the prognosis is good. The causes are many, including atopic dermatitis, food, psychogenic causes, boredom, bacterial folliculitis, foreign bodies, neurologic disorders, local trauma, andjoint or bone diseases. Independent of the contributing factor, once the lesion has developed it will contribute to the perpetuation of the compulsive licking behavior.

Dogs diseases : Actinomycosis

Actinomycosis

Actinomycosis is a slowly progressive, pus-forming infection caused by branching bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Classically, actinomycosis is a disease of cattle, but it also occurs in other animal species, and as a facial and oral infection in man. Actinomycesbacteria normally live in the mouth, the nasal passages near the throat, and the bowels.Actinomyces may cause disease due to poor oral hygiene, dental and periodontal problems, trauma and following oral surgical procedures. Pulmonary actinomycosis may develop as a result of aspiration of actinomyces that originated from dental plaque and diseased gums. Several species are associated with the disease in dogs: Actinomyces bovis, Actinomyces hordeovulneris, and Actinomyces viscosus. Hunting or field dogs in southern areas are most commonly affected. Actinomyces bovis causes loose teeth and difficulty breathing due to swelling of the nasal cavity. Actinomyces hordeovulneris causes abscesses in the liver and spleen and generalized infections in the cavities surrounding the lungs and bacterial arthritis.

Two forms of actinomycosis are usually seen in dogs. The more common is a skin abscess or mycetoma. This form, resulting from a skin wound, usually responds well to treatment.Actinomyces viscosus causes chronic pneumonia, inflammation of cavities surrounding the lungs, and skin abscesses associated with fever, pain and swelling of the skin. Canine interdigital actinomycosis is especially likely to result from foxtail, grass awns, or quills foreign body penetration.

Skin form of actinomycosis is diagnosed based on skin cell examination, bacteriologic culture, or tissue examination. Abscesses, draining fistulous tracts, and granulomas that develop can be misinterpreted as neoplasms on radiographs or ultrasonograms. Treatment of actinomycosis depends on the bacterium species that causes the disease. The skin form of actinomycosis may require surgical cleaning, drainage, and administration of antibiotics. High doses of penicillins given for prolonged periods (weeks to months) is the treatment of choice.1 Amoxycillin and clindamycin may or may not be effective.2 Minocyclin hydrochloride (Minosin, Arestin), and rifampin (Rifadin, Rifactane) have also been used. Major limiting factor associated with rifampin is rapid development of resistance, thus the need to combine this antibiotic with other agents. The drug is very toxic to the liver.4 In some dogs there may be recurring infections that will require several surgical procedures.

Dogs Addison Disease

Addison disease, also known as hypoadrenocorticism, is a type of adrenal gland disease that results from the atrophy of the adrenal glands and is characterized by insufficient production of the hormone cortisol. Adrenocortical hormones are vital for life. Aldosterone is the most important naturally occurring mineralocorticoid, while cortisol represents the most important glucocorticoid. 

Both hormones are synthesized from cholesterol.3 Cortisol is the principal glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex which helps metabolize nutrients, mediate physiologic stress, and regulate the immune system. Intense heat or cold, infection, trauma, exercise, obesity and debilitating diseases influence cortisol production. Addison disease is the opposite of Cushing disease in which cortisol is overabundant. However, in Addison disease, cortisol production is not the only problem, because other adrenal hormones will also be insufficiently produced by the pituitary gland or thehypothalamus. 


Dogs : Canine Achondroplasia and Acrochordonous Plaque, Fibroepithelial Polyps

Canine Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is variously referred by orthopedic specialists as asachondroplastic dwarfism, chondrodystrophia fetalis, chondrodystrophy syndrome, congenital osteosclerosis, dwarf, and osteosclerosis congenita. These various definitions mean the same abnormal development of bone from cartilage.1 Offspring can look normal at birth and weaning, but at the age of 2.5 to 4 months the longitudinal growth of the spine and leg bones can retard in the dwarfs compared with the normal littermates. Most dwarfs perform well, even in the field.5 Canine achondroplasia can be a mild condition, with slightly bowing or simply short legs, causing no discomfort to the animal. Severe achondroplasia requires extensive orthopedic surgery to both alleviate pain and allow the dog to function normally. This surgery, most frequently an ulna, or radius surgery, is generally performed at one year of age when bone growth is nearly complete. Surgical success is variable.

Acrochordonous Plaque, Fibroepithelial Polyps

Acrochordons, also called skin tags, soft fibromas, fibroepithelial polyps, fibroma pendulans, pedunculated fibromas, and soft warts, are tumor-like lesions of the skin that occur both in humans and animals. Sometimes they become numerous, closely located growths forming a plaque, predominantly located at the neck. An acrochordon is usually skin colored or of darker color, and it may appear as surface nodules or papillomas on healthy skin. Most acrochordons vary in size from 2-5 mm in diameter, although larger acrochordons up to 5 cm in diameter are sometimes seen. The most frequent localizations are the neck and the armpits, but any skin fold, including the groin, may be affected.3 Although the exact cause of these lesions remains unclear, hormone imbalances have been suggested to facilitate their development. In addition, there is a predisposition in bulldog-like breeds.1 On rare occasions, fibroepithelial polyps can undergo malignant transformation into basal or squamous cell carcinoma. If fibroepithelial polyps occur in the urinary tract, animals may develop urinary incontinence, urinary tract infection, and/or increased thirst and abnormally frequent urination.2

Dogs : Canine Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a type of skin pigmentation disorder characterized by brown-pigmented, wartlike protuberances or elevations appearing in various body folds. There are two forms of the disease: primary and secondary. The primary form is seen exclusively in the Dachshund breed. It begins with subtle symmetrical hyperpigmentation in the armpits. The early lesions then progress slowly to hair loss. Greasy, smelly debris accumulates in more severely affected dogs. The abdomen, groin, chest, anal area, forelimbs and hock may all be involved. Secondary acanthosis nigricans refers to clinical skin reaction pattern that is characterized by visually similar lesions and is seen in a variety of breeds. Acanthosis nigricans is similar to chronic hyperplastic dermatitis, particularly due to allergy.

A careful history and physical examination is performed to identify an underlying cause. Skin scrapings are performed to rule out demodicosis, especially in young dogs. Impression smears are useful to identify bacterial and Malassezia infections. Primary acanthosis nigricans in Dachshunds is not curable. Early cases may respond to shampoo therapy and local topicalglucocorticoids, for example, betamethasone valerate ointment. As lesions progress, more aggressive systemic therapy may be useful. In secondary acanthosis nigricans, the lesions will spontaneously resolve after identification and correction of the underlying cause. However, this will not occur if secondary bacterial or yeast pyoderma are not treated appropriately. Vitamin E has been successfully used in the treatment of a variety of skin diseases including discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, and epidermolysis bullosa simplex. Although it helps to stop itching and inflammation, vitamin E is rarely successful alone in the management of these conditions, but offers a relatively nontoxic aid to therapy.

Breed-specific scaling and crusting disorders

Breed-specific scaling and crusting disorders: Parts 1 and 2 (Proceedings)

Alloimmune Hemolytic Anemia Of The Newborn Puppies

Hemolytic anemia is ahematologic disorder characterized by inadequate circulating red blood cells or insufficuent hemoglobin due to premature destruction of red blood cells. Alloimmune hemolytic anemia, also called alloimmune hemolysis, is the production of antibodies that are directed against red blood cells (RBCs) of another individual of the same species. The condition typically occurs following transfusion of ABO incompatible blood and rhesus disease of the newborn. It can also occur following allogenic transplantation when cells are transplanted from a donor. Female nursing dogs transmit antibodies to the puppies via colostrum, the yellowish fluid rich in antibodies and minerals that is produced after giving birth and before producing real milk. 

Red blood cells
The antibodies develop in the mother during unmatched blood transfusions. Newborn puppies with this disorder are usually normal at birth, but develop severe hemolytic anemia within two to three days and become weak and jaundiced. Hemolytic disease of the newborn is more than just an anemia. Although the anemia itself can be quite serious and result in severe hypotension and even death, there is a second threat to the puppy. Jaundice in newborns occurs not only due to the destruction of red blood cells, but also because the liver of the newborn puppy cannot handle quickly enough the removal of RBCs. The toxic effect of bilirubin can cause serious damage to the brain. A veterinarian can perform a test to check for alloimmune hemolytic anemia before the newborn is allowed to receive maternal colostrum. Diagnosis is confirmed by screening maternal serum, plasma, or colostrum against the paternal or newborn red blood cells.

Signs Of Common Diseases in dogs


The following is a list of most common diseases and in a dog and signs that characterize them. However, this list is not intended to be used to diagnose and treat your dog, but rather as a tool to tell when your dog is ill. Communicating with your veterinarian is a key part of ensuring good health care for your dog.

DISEASESSIGNS
Abscesses (according to site)difficulty moving, fever, loss of appetite, pus
Arthritispainful to touch
Burnsrapid breathing, shedding coat, ulceration
Cystitis
(inflammation of the bladder)
abdominal pain, blood in the urine, difficult or no urination, painful urination, urinary incontinence
Dermatitis
(skin inflammation)
shedding coat, skin irritation, ulceration
Diabetes Insipidusintense thirst, urinary incontinence, urinary incontinence, voracious appetite
Diabetes Mellitusbad breath, coma, frequent urination, intense thirst, urinary incontinence, voracious appetite
Distemperabdominal pain, convulsions, cough, diarrhea (normal), loss of appetite, fever, low spirits, poor appetite, rapid breathing, trembling, vomiting, voracious appetite
Eclampsiachanges in behavior, convulsions, bedsores, fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, loss of balance, painful breathing, trembling
Eczemashedding coat, skin irritation
Enteritis
(inflammation of the intestines)
abdominal pain, diarrhea (normal), loss of appetite, vomiting, weight loss
External Parasitesscratches the ears, shedding coat, skin irritation
Foreign Bodiesabdominal pain, constipation, cough, cyanosis, diarrhea (normal), difficulty swallowing, intense thirst, loss of appetite, painful to touch, scratches the ears, swelling of the abdomen, vomiting
Gastritisabdominal pain, bad breath, loss of appetite, swelling of the abdomen, vomiting
Hemorrhageconspicuous inner eyelid, painful breathing, rapid breathing, shock
Heart Diseaseabdominal distension, convulsions, cough, lethargy, mucous tissues pale, painful breathing
Heat Strokechanges in behavior, coma, bedsores, fever, intense thirst, loss of appetite, loss of balance, low spirits, painful breathing, painful to touch, rapid breathing, shock, ulceration
Infectious Hepatitisabdominal pain, diarrhea (with blood), fever, intense thirst, jaundice, lethargy, loss of appetite, painful breathing, rapid breathing, vomiting
Internal Parasitescough, diarrhea (with blood), diarrhea (normal), mucous tissues pale, swelling of the abdomen, vomiting, voracious appetite, weight loss
Intestinal Blockageabdominal pain, constipation, convulsions, lethargy, loss of appetite, poor appetite, vomiting
Leptospirosisabdominal pain, blood in the urine, cyanosis, diarrhea (normal), difficult or no urination, fever, jaundice, lethargy, loss of appetite, painful urination, poor appetite, rapid breathing, vomiting
Leukemialethargy, loss of appetite, low spirits, mucous tissues pale, conspicuous inner eyelid painful breathing, rapid breathing, vomiting
Metritis
(inflammation of the uterus)
abdominal pain, convulsions, cyanosis (low blood oxygen), lethargy, loss of appetite, conspicuous inner eyelid, pus, swelling of the abdomen, vomiting
Nephritisabdominal distension, abdominal pain, bad breath, cyanosis (low blood oxygen), difficult or no urination, fever, frequent urination, lethargy, low spirits, painful urination, swelling of the abdomen
Otitisconvulsions, loss of balance, pus, scratches the ears, skin irritation
Para-Influenzacough, painful breathing
Parvovirusconvulsions, diarrhea with blood, diarrhea (normal), fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, low spirits, conspicuous inner eyelid, poor appetite, rapid breathing, vomiting, weight loss
Poisoningchanges in behavior, convulsions, cyanosis (low blood oxygen), diarrhea (with blood), diarrhea (normal), poor appetite, rapid breathing, shedding coat, shock, trembling, vomiting
Rabieschanges in behavior, convulsions, fever, intense thirst, loss of balance, low spirits, mucous tissues pale, conspicuous inner eyelid, poor appetite, trembling, weight loss
Ringwormshedding coat
Stonesabdominal pain, blood in the urine, difficult or no urination, painful urination, urinary incontinence
Tartarbad breath
Tonsillitiscough, difficulty swallowing, fever, loss of appetite, vomiting
Toothachebad breath, difficulty swallowing, intense thirst, loss of appetite
Torsion of the Stomachabdominal pain, changes in behavior, coma, convulsions, difficulty swallowing, intense thirst, loss of appetite, conspicuous inner eyelid, mucous tissues pale, painful breathing, painful to touch, poor appetite, rapid breathing, swelling of the abdomen, vomiting
Tuberculosiscough, loss of appetite, low spirits, conspicuous inner eyelid, painful breathing, rapid breathing, trembling, weight loss
Tumorsabdominal distension, loss of appetite, mucous tissues pale, conspicuous inner eyelid, painful to touch, weight loss

Amyloidosis in dogs

Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a group of metabolic familial or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, characterized by the abnormal protein folding and deposition of a complex substance composed of amyloid protein and fibrils (fine fibers). Amyloid A amyloidosis (AA) is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis worldwide. It is characterized by extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils that are composed of fragments of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, a major acute-phase reactant protein, produced mainly by hepatocytes. There are several types of amyloid and the classification of amyloidosis is based on which amyloid protein is involved. A particular type of amyloidosis is designated by a capital A (for amyloid) followed by an abbreviation for the fibril protein. Twenty-three different fibril proteins are described in human amyloidosis with variable clinical features. In all forms of amyloidosis, the cell secretes the precursor protein in a soluble form that becomes insoluble at some tissue site, compromising organ function. Amyloidosis may develop in the course of a chronic inflammatory disease of either infectious or noninfectious origin, hereditary periodic fevers, neoplasms such as Hodgkin disease and renal cell carcinoma.1 Glomerular amyloidosis usually causes urinary excretion of protein. The disease is considered to be inherited in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed.

10 top Diseases of dog

There are 10 infectious diseases in dogs, which can inflict any dog breed, at any age. Understanding these dangerous dog diseases will allow you to protect your furry friend from infection. Each dog disease is described below, focusing on the manner in which the infectious disease is transmitted from dog to dog and across dog breeds, as well as the options open to dog owners for preventing infection in their dog.

10 Dog Diseases: #1, GIARDIA

Giardia is a dog disease that causes diarrhea with abdominal pain and consequent weight loss and poor weight gain. This dog disease results from a water-born parasite, after whom the disease of Giardia is named. Giardia is ubiquitous in open water sources throughout North America, and your dog can become infected by simply drinking contaminated water, such as in a lake, pond, or stagnant pool. Monthly Heartworm prevention pills, which also prevent other intestinal parasites, will protect your dog against Giardia.

10 Dog Diseases: #2, DISTEMPER

Distemper is a viral dog disease which is extremely contagious. Affecting the respiratory system as well as the nervous system, this dog disease causes fever and fatigue, coughing, vomiting and diarrhea, and finally seizures. And if untreated Distemper can lead to death. Distemper can be prevented with vaccinations at your local vet.

10 Dog Diseases: #3, PARVO

Parvo (or Parvovirus) is one of the most contagious dog diseases around. Affecting the bowels, Parvo symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting so severe that they may lead to death. And though dogs of all ages may contract this disease, Parvo is most common, and most dangerous, in puppies. Typically Parvo is passed from one dog to another from contaminated feces. But this dog disease may also be carried on fur or paws, thereby contaminating the living space of the dog and any objects he comes in contact with. Vaccination can protect dogs from Parvo.

10 Dog Diseases: #4, CORONAVIRUS

Coronavirus is another viral diarrhea that can affect dogs of all ages, though puppies are most at risk and will suffer the worst symptoms, from diarrhea to vomiting and weight loss, accompanied by constant drinking. At times, a dog may be infected with both Parvo and Coronavirus, in which case his symptoms will be more severe and may lead to death. Vaccination can protect dogs from Coronavirus.

10 Dog Diseases: #5, HEPATITIS

As with humans, Hepatitis dog disease affects the liver. This contagious dog disease includes symptoms such as fever, vomiting and diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain. Furthermore, Hepatitis may lead to kidney damage. Once more, however, vaccination can protect dogs from Hepatitis.

10 Dog Diseases: #6, LYME DISEASE

Lyme disease is dangerous bacterial disease which can cause irreversible damage to a dog's health. Symptoms of Lyme disease include arthritis and lameness, sudden limping indicative of pain, fatigue and lack of willingness to play or even walk, depression and loss of appetite. If left untreated, Lyme disease will damage the heart, kidney and even the brain. Vaccination can protect dogs from Lyme disease.

10 Dog Diseases: #7, RABIES

Once the most dreaded dog disease, Rabies is a caused by a virus, which attacks the brain. Rabies is a deadly disease that will be contracted through a bite from a rabid wild animal, such as skunks or raccoons, as well as bats. Unlike some dog disease, rabies can be passed to humans as well through a bite, or even just a scratch. Vaccination will protect dogs from Rabies and is mandatory for dogs throughout North America.

10 Dog Diseases: #8, LEPTOSPIROSIS

Like Rabies, Leptospirosis is carried by wild animals, although this dog disease is caused by a bacteria. You dog can become infected by drinking contaminated water or by coming in contact with an infected animal. Symptoms of Leptospirosis include high fever and jaundice, accompanied by hemorrhaging which will manifest in bloodstained feces. Vaccination can protect dogs from Leptospirosis.

10 Dog Diseases: #9, KENNEL COUGH

Most dog owners knew this dog disease by the name of the organism that causes it: the Bordetella virus. However, several other organisms can cause this highly infectious dog disease, whose full name is Infectious Tracheobronchitis (ITB). Symptoms of kennel cough include severe coughing spells, which may lead to vomiting and gagging. Nasal discharge and watery eyes are also possible. Though this vaccines is not automatically given at your local vet, if your dog is likely to interact with other dogs in the park, vaccinating him against kennel cough is a very good idea.

10 Dog Diseases: #10, PARAINFLUENZA

Parainfluenza is another strain of Kennel cough. This respiratory infection in dogs is highly contagious and will lead to flu like symptoms. Once more, the name Kennel Cough may mislead dog owners into thinking that their dog is not at risk if he never stays at a kennel. However, Parainfluenza may be contracted by simply being around an infected dog, as in the park, the beach, or an off-leash dog park.

1/20/13

Bacterial Infections in Dogs

In dogs, bacterial infection can be treated by antibiotics; but to determine which antibiotics to administer, the vet will have to carry out a proper diagnosis. On your end, having a rough idea about the condition can help you carry out a preliminary diagnosis and take your pet to a vet well in time.

Dogs are susceptible to a variety of bacterial and viral infections, some of which can even prove fatal for them. Skin, eye, ear, urinary tract, kidneys, nervous system and even the respiratory system of the dog is vulnerable to such bacterial infections. Even minor infections can lead to severe dog health problems when left untreated, and therefore it is necessary to identify the problem and initiate treatment at the earliest.

Bacterial Skin Infections: Staphylococcal pyoderma is a skin condition in dogs caused by a Staphylococcus sp. infection. This bacteria is in fact a part of the dog's normal skin flora. However, in case of wounded skin, or skin that has aberrations and cuts, the bacterium may enter under the skin and cause skin infections. A staph infection in dogs is characterized by itchiness, crusted skin, pustules and small, raised lesions. As the severity of the infection increases, there is loss of hair, and dried discharge is given out in the affected area. Most of the time, it affects the superficial layer of the dog's skin. However, if there is deep laceration then the inner folds of the skin are also affected. To treat skin infections in dogs, topical medication along with antibiotic doses is prescribed, especially to eliminate recurrence of the disease.

Dermatitis in Dogs and Cats Caused by Bacterial and Yeast Infections

Dermatitis is general term that refers to inflammation in the skin. In dogs and cats, dermatitis may be caused by yeast or bacterial infections in the skin.

How Yeast and Bacterial Dermatitis Happens in Dogs and Cats
Skin infections caused by yeast and bacteria rarely happen alone. Under normal circumstances, both canine and feline skin provides a defensive barrier that bacteria and yeast are unable to breach. However, when your dog or cat's skin becomes damaged, the environment on the surface of the skin changes. This change gives the normal yeast and bacteria living on the surface of the skin the opportunity to avoid the skin's normal defense systems and cause further damage to the skin.



If your dog or cat has been scratching excessively or has been losing his hair, it is possible that his skin has become infected by either bacteria or yeast. Various skin diseases can cause changes in the skin that can allow yeast and bacteria to invade and infect the skin. Potential underlying causes include:
  • allergic skin disease, such as flea allergy, food allergy or atopy
  • infectious skin disease, such as Demodectic mange
  • metabolic skin disease, such as that caused by hypothyroidism or hyperadrenocorticism in dogs

LEPTOSPIRA BACTERIAL INFECTION IN DOGS

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is an infection of bacterial spirochetes, which dogs acquire when subspecies of the Leptospira interrogans penetrate the skin and spread through the body by way of the bloodstream. Two of of the most commonly seen members of this subspecies are the L. grippotyphosa and L. Pomona bacteria. Spirochetes are spiral, or corkscrew-shaped bacteria which infiltrate the system by burrowing into the skin. Leptospires spread throughout the entire body, reproducing in the liver, kidneys, central nervous system, eyes, and reproductive system. Soon after initial infection, fever and bacterial infection of the blood develop, but these symptoms soon resolve with the reactive increase of antibodies, which clear the spirochetes from most of the system. The extent to which this bacteria affects the organs will depend on your dog’s immune system and its ability to eradicate the infection fully. Even then, Leptospira spirochetes can remain in the kidneys, reproducing there and infecting the urine. Infection of the liver or kidneys can be fatal for animals if the infection progresses, causing severe damage to these organs. Younger animals with less developed immune systems are at the highest risk for severe complications. The Leptospira spirochete bacteria is zoonotic, meaning that it can be transmitted to humans and other animals. Children are most at risk of acquiring the bacteria from an infected pet.


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